“Endo” means “within” and “odont” means “tooth” in Greek. Endodontic treatment deals with the interior of the tooth. It is also known as nerve treatment. Within the tooth, below the white enamel and a hard layer called dentine, there is a soft tissue called pulp. The pulp contains blood vessels, nerves and connective tissue which feed the tooth during its formation and extend from the crown of the tooth to the tip of the roots. Endodontic treatment is necessary when the pulp becomes inflamed or is infected, and this may be due to deep cavities, various dental procedures in the tooth or to a fracture in the tooth. Trauma may also cause the need for endodontic treatment. If the inflammation or the infection of the nerve is not treated, pain or an abscess may result.